Beijing Olympic Green
Beijing Olympic Green is located at the north end of the central
axis of Beijing City. Covering an area of 1135 hectares it consists
of a forest park, a central area including competition venues, Olympic
Village, the Main Press Center (MPC), and the International Broadcasting
Center (IBC) and China Ethnic Museum. The Olympic Green will be
connected with the downtown by subway and highways. The transportation
system is very convenient.
Altogether 30 venues will be used in Beijing during the 29th Olympiad.
Ten venues will be built in the Olympic Green. Most venues in Beijing
have already been completed, though some are still under construction.
An additional six cities, namely Hong Kong, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao,
Shanghai, Shenyang and Tianjin, will also co-operate with Beijing
to run the Equestrian, Sailing and the Football Preliminaries matches.
The National Stadium (The Bird’s Nest)
The National Stadium also called the Bird's Nest because of the
unique design, which is the landmark of the Olympic Green in Beijing.
It has the floor area of 258,000 square meters (about 25.8 hectares)
with the height of 69 meters.
The circular shape represented the heaven in ancient Chinese cosmology.
Designed by the famous Swiss architect Herzog & DeMeuron and
China Architecture Design Institute, the stadium has a revolutionary
design, which was chosen at the end of a six month long international
competition. It comprises an outer skeleton of 42,000 tons of steel,
and an inner 'skin' of double-layered plastic which keeps out wind
and rain and filters out ultraviolet radiation. It is the biggest
steel structure in the world. The whole cost of the Bird’s Nest
is USD 423 million. The national stadium is surrounded in a sort
of membrane. Unlike China's National Aquatics Center, or "Water
Cube," another Olympic venue which is also surrounded in this
membrane, the Bird's Nest version is curved and double-layered,
offering gracefully decorative soundproof, wind-proof, rain-proof,
and even UVA protection to its already impressive body. The outer
layer of membrane, completely constructed in November of 2007, was
created using 884 individual ETFE panels, covering a total of 38,500
square meters. The inner layer consists of PTFE material. 1,044
panels take up 53,000 square meters of area, whose main purposes
are to better the acoustics in the stadium and to support the equipment
within the steel frame. This special membrane can also help lighting
within the stadium and effectively diminish glare and shadowing,
allowing for a more favorable competition environment.
It is designed to last for 100 years and withstand a force eight
magnitude earthquake. It has 91000 seats upon completion. Besides
the Opening and Closing Ceremonies, It will be the venue for track
and field games and football games during the Games. This Stadium
will be the stage for both national and international sporting events,
as well as cultural and entertainment activities after the Olympics.
The Bird’s Nest has a four-star hotel with 80 rooms under one of
its sides, a gourmet restaurant with views of the athletics track,
and a twin-level underground shopping centre.
Its architects also claim it is one of the most environmentally-friendly
stadiums in the world, as under soil geothermal pipes help heat
indoor parts of stadium in winter and rainwater is collected and
stored in underground cisterns for irrigation and to flush lavatories.
The National Aquatics Center (the Water Cube)
The glittering National Aquatics Center, also called” Water Cube”,
is another highlight of Olympic Green. It
covers an area of more than 65,000 square meters (about 6.5 hectares)
and has a capacity of 17,000 during the Swimming, Diving, Water
Polo, and Synchronized Swimming events. The money is mainly from
the donations by many Chinese and Chinese associations from Hong
Kong, Macau, Taiwan and the rest of the world. The Water Cube was
designed and built by a consortium made up of PTW Architects (an
Australian architecture firm), ARUP International Engineering Group,
CSCEC (China State Construction Engineering Corporation),and CCDI(China
Construction Design International) of Shanghai. The Water Cube's
design was initiated by a team effort: the Chinese partners felt
a square was more symbolic to Chinese culture and its relationship
to the Bird's Nest stadium, while the Sydney based partners came
up with the idea of covering the “cube” with bubbles, symbolizing
water. The Water Cube has set a new standard in environmental sports
design, not only in China but throughout the world.
The unique structure of the Water Cube The design
feature of the "Water Cube" is the "bubbles."
The membrane structure of the "Water Cube," which is composed
of more than 3000 pneumatic die cushions with a coverage area of
110, 000 square meters, is the largest in the world.
The venue's membrane structure, covered by ETFE (Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene)
air cushions, is not only the first of its kind in China and the
world's largest and most complex ETFE project, but it is also an
economical and water-saving creation.
The blue-colored "hubble-bubble" material is much lighter
and cheaper than conventional glazing structures with the same lighting
effect. So the cost of its supporting steel structure was reduced
considerably. In addition, the "Water Cube" was designed
with water-saving and environmental protection efforts. According
to statistics, the outer surface and roof facade can "collect"
10,000 tons of rain water, 70,000 tons of clean water and 60,000
tons of swimming pool water annually. And the venue can also save
140,000 tons of recycled water a year.
The outer wall of the "Water Cube" is composed of 3000
irregular "bubbles," which make up the ETFE membrane structure.
The ETFE membrane has good ductility and crushing resistance. After
air inflated, every piece of membrane can resist the weight of a
car. It also has good resistance against fire and intense heat.
Tests have proven that the strength of the membrane structure of
the National Aquatic Center can meet these stability requirements,
even in bad weather conditions such as hailstones. The whole structure
can withstand a force eight magnitude earthquake. The structure
is designed to last for 100 years.
'Water Cube' keeps comfortable humidity with no steam.
It can maintain spring-like warm temperatures with a comfortable
level of humidity amid the city's chilly outdoor circumstances.
And even in the city's humid August, the venue will be fully dew
prevented. As a completely enclosed swimming gymnasium, a potential
problem with high humidity was taken into consideration in the design.
A unique approach was taken in the air-conditioning system. With
sustainable development as its design principle, a strict temperature
and humidity control system was built with recycled hot water to
supply an air-conditioning system in the living area and the swimming
pool. In addition, other cooling methods, such as outdoor and indoor
air recycling systems, solar energy and double-deck ventilation
devices; successfully maintain comfortable temperatures and stable
humidity of between 50 and 60 percent in the venue. Another potential
problem that might affect swimmers in the pool or divers on the
springboard is dew dropping from the rooftop.
To solve this problem, the designers started with the thermal requirement
of the building shell, retaining a far smaller heat transfer coefficient
for the building shell than for the quality glass walls. Meanwhile,
they engineered the airflow in this spacious building with air-conditioning
systems and swimming and leisure pools, and they devised a way to
optimize the ventilation frequency at the upper spaces of the building
using the building's air supply, return inlets, and exhaust outlets.
In addition, a heating air supply system was installed at the ramp
that clings to the lower end of the roof, while an air ventilation
system was installed at the facade of the building shell.
The Water Cube can breathe. Eight fans which discharge
the air naturally are set on the roof and the body of the "Water
Cube." After fresh air enters the building, it can be discharged
through the cavum in the roof. This is how the heating within the
building is released.
The "Water Cube" can "wash its face"
by itself. The ETFE membrane is self-cleaning in nature.
Since the friction coefficient of the material is small, dust does
not easily attach onto the structure. Even if dust does collect
on it, as long as it rains, the surface is washed by rain water.
Insulation and ventilation keep temperatures pleasant year-round
In spite of clear skies, Beijing, in the depths of winter, has a
frigid coldness about it that can be attributed to strong winds
from the northwest. The cold does not mitigate even as you stand
before the National Aquatic Center admiring its beauty. Upon walking
inside, however, you immediately feel the warmth of the building
-- warmth that might remind you of pleasant springtime temperatures.
It turns out that the space between the air-pillow walls of the
"Water Cube," as the National Aquatics Center (NAC) is
also known, is completely sealed off, creating a layer of. Insulation.
In the summer, a meter-high vent works to regulate the NAC's temperature
indoors through heat exchange, by drawing indoor heat out of and
cooler outdoor air into the venue. In the winter the vent is sealed
off, and the warm indoor temperatures remain constant.
To address potential problems with heat from direct sunlight, the
membrane layers between the two layers of air pillows have different
degrees of density to control the amount of sunlight that is let
into the NAC. This works in part also to reduce the amount of heat
brought about by the sun and helps keep the indoor temperatures
under control. The "Water Cube's indoor environment fully took
into consideration the requirements of both athletes and spectators.
The main competition hall and water recreation hall both make use
of advanced ventilation systems.
Since construction began, the designers had monitored various parameters
at the venue, including changes in wind pressure, wind movement
and temperature field. This data has resulted in the ability to
keep the venue's indoor temperatures constant year-round.
With a land area of 80 hectares and a total building floor area
of 470,000 square meters, the Olympic Village, located within the
Olympic Green, will accommodate 17,600 athletes and team officials.
A 680-hectare "Forest Park" will also be created within
the Olympic Village.
The Olympic Village will provide safe and comfortable facilities
to help athletes achieve their peak performance during the Games.
The Residential Quarter located in the western part of the Village
consists of apartment buildings, dining halls, and other facilities.
The International Quarter located in the eastern part of the Village
will provide leisure facilities and cultural activities for athletes.
After the Games, the Village will become a residential area.
The Emblem of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games The Beijing
2008 Olympic Games emblem "Chinese Seal, Dancing Beijing"
embodies the Olympic spirit and traditional Chinese culture. The
art of calligraphy and Chinese seal carving are well applied in
the emblem, which created an image of a running sportsman. The image
also seems like the Chinese character for capital that implies the
host city of Beijing. It also shows the friendliness, hospitality
and peace-loving of Chinese people.
The Mascots (Fuwa) of Beijing Olympic Games The
mascots of Beijing Olympic Games, also called “Fuwa” consist of
five images namely a fish, a panda, the Olympic flame, a Tibetan
antelope and a swallow. The mascots convey a message of friendship
and peace together with the dream that mankind and nature can
live in great harmony.
Each of the five images has been given a nice name - Beibei, Jingjing,
Huanhuan, Yingying and Nini. When these are read together thus 'Bei
Jing Huan Ying Ni' it means 'Welcome to Beijing' in Chinese. Each
image conveys different wishes and meanings: Beibei (the fish),
symbolizes prosperity and richness; Jingjing, a lovely panda symbolizes
the harmonious existence between human and nature; Huanhuan (the
Olympic flame), regarded as the elder brother of the five, expresses
the Olympic spirit, while Yingying, the Tibet antelope wishes everyone
in the world good health and the swallow Nini brings happiness and
good luck. As the five images are colored blue, black, red, yellow
and green respectively they well match the Five Olympic Rings and
they also coincide with the old belief of Five Elements in Chinese
Other attractions in Beijing.