The Liao Dynasty(907-1125) was
established by the Khitan tribe (Qidan). The Qidan minority was
an ancient nomadic tribe that lived in northern China. In 916, Yelu
Abaoji, the chief of the Qidan tribe, established the Qidan Kingdom
and proclaimed himself emperor. Historically, Yelu Abaoji was called
Emperor Taizu. In 947, Emperor Taizong renamed his dynasty the "Great
Liao"; in 983, Emperor Shengzong revived the name Khitan; and
in 1066, Emperor Daozong restored the name "Great Liao."In
1104, Liao launched another war. In the following year, having tired
of the ceaseless skirmishes with the nomadic people, the Song proposed
the Chanyuan Treaty with the Liao. The treaty required the Liao
to ensure quiet frontiers for the Song. In return, the Song had
to pay a yearly tribute to the Liao.The Liao Dynasty, using the
tributes paid by the Song, achieved rapid progress and reached a
zenith both economically and politically.The Liao government, weakened
by economical disasters and internal quarrels, became brittle. Quickly,
the Jin army occupied most of the Liao territory. In 1125, Emperor
Tianzuo was captured by the Jin army, which brought the Liao Dynasty
to an end.
The Jin Dynasty(1115-1234) was founded by Nuzhen.
The ancestors of the Nuzhen people lived in the Changbai Mountains
and the Helongjiang Valley. The Nuzhen tribe consisted of dozens
of clans where the Wanyan clan was the largest. In 1113, as chieftain
of the clan union Wanyan Aguda succeeded to unite all of them, marking
a new era in Nuzhen tribal history. In 1114, Wanyan performed a
ritual with his armies on the banks of the Lailiu River and established
a new dynasty -- the Great Jin Dynasty -- in 1115, proclaiming himself
emperor. Initially, the Jin Dynasty established its capital city
in Huining later moving to Yanjing (Beijing City). Lastly, the capital
was moved to Bianjing on the site of modern Kaifeng City in Henan
Province. For a long period of time the Jin people were oppressed
by the Qidan people. In 1120, the Jin Dynasty made an alliance with
the Northern Song (960-1127) to defeat the Liao, and in 1125 the
Liao Emperor Tianzuo was captured and his dynasty collapsed. The
Jin then assumed total control of Northern China.
Soon afterwards, the Jin turned against the Northern Song. Emperor
Taizong who was greatly encouraged by the victory over the Liao,
launched a general war against the Song. Although the Song army
put up a strong resistance, due to its weak court and ineffective
leadership, the Jin army prevailed. In 1127, the Jin army took the
capital, Kaifeng, and captured the Song emperor. Following the fall
of the Northern Song, the remainder of the court fled south and
established a new dynasty – the Southern Song (1127-1279).
Soon, the newly founded Southern Song also became a target for the
Jin. However, this attempt proved less successful for the Jin due
to the resistance led by Yuefei, Han Shizhong and other heroes.
The Jin army suffered heavy setbacks and could no longer compete
with the Song. Thus, a period of coexistence between the two rival
powers came into being.
A peaceful yet uneasy period between the rival Jin and Southern
Song dynasties was made possible when the Jin became an ally of
the Western Xia. This gave the Jin a dominant position in which
it was able to demand tributes from the Song. However, the Jin underestimated
the growing threat from its ancient enemies, the Mongolians.
With the growing power of Mongolians, Jin was threatened by Mongols.
In 1233, the Mongolian army conquered Bianjing (Jin’s capital).
In 1234 the Mongolian army, assisted by the Song army, captured
Jin’s emperor and put an end to the Jin Dynasty.
Western Xia Dynasty In 1038 that the Tangut chieftain
Li Yuahao, named himself emperor of Da Xia, and demanded of the
Northern Song emperor’s recognition as an equal. The Song court
accepted the recognition of Li Yuanhao as “governor”, but not “emperor”,
a title considered exclusive to the Song emperor. After intense
diplomatic contacts, in 1043 the Tangut state accepted the recognition
of the Song emperor as emperor in exchange for annual tribute, which
implied tacit recognition on the part of the Song of the military
power of the Tangut.
After the Jin destroyed the Northern Song Dynasty in 1127, Western
Xia took several thousand square miles of land from Northern Song.
In 1227 Western Xia was destroyed by Mongol.