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The Liao Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty, and the Western Xia Dynasty

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The Liao Dynasty(907-1125) was established by the Khitan tribe (Qidan). The Qidan minority was an ancient nomadic tribe that lived in northern China. In 916, Yelu Abaoji, the chief of the Qidan tribe, established the Qidan Kingdom and proclaimed himself emperor. Historically, Yelu Abaoji was called Emperor Taizu. In 947, Emperor Taizong renamed his dynasty the "Great Liao"; in 983, Emperor Shengzong revived the name Khitan; and in 1066, Emperor Daozong restored the name "Great Liao."In 1104, Liao launched another war. In the following year, having tired of the ceaseless skirmishes with the nomadic people, the Song proposed the Chanyuan Treaty with the Liao. The treaty required the Liao to ensure quiet frontiers for the Song. In return, the Song had to pay a yearly tribute to the Liao.The Liao Dynasty, using the tributes paid by the Song, achieved rapid progress and reached a zenith both economically and politically.The Liao government, weakened by economical disasters and internal quarrels, became brittle. Quickly, the Jin army occupied most of the Liao territory. In 1125, Emperor Tianzuo was captured by the Jin army, which brought the Liao Dynasty to an end.
The Jin Dynasty(1115-1234) was founded by Nuzhen. The ancestors of the Nuzhen people lived in the Changbai Mountains and the Helongjiang Valley. The Nuzhen tribe consisted of dozens of clans where the Wanyan clan was the largest. In 1113, as chieftain of the clan union Wanyan Aguda succeeded to unite all of them, marking a new era in Nuzhen tribal history. In 1114, Wanyan performed a ritual with his armies on the banks of the Lailiu River and established a new dynasty -- the Great Jin Dynasty -- in 1115, proclaiming himself emperor. Initially, the Jin Dynasty established its capital city in Huining later moving to Yanjing (Beijing City). Lastly, the capital was moved to Bianjing on the site of modern Kaifeng City in Henan Province. For a long period of time the Jin people were oppressed by the Qidan people. In 1120, the Jin Dynasty made an alliance with the Northern Song (960-1127) to defeat the Liao, and in 1125 the Liao Emperor Tianzuo was captured and his dynasty collapsed. The Jin then assumed total control of Northern China.
Soon afterwards, the Jin turned against the Northern Song. Emperor Taizong who was greatly encouraged by the victory over the Liao, launched a general war against the Song. Although the Song army put up a strong resistance, due to its weak court and ineffective leadership, the Jin army prevailed. In 1127, the Jin army took the capital, Kaifeng, and captured the Song emperor. Following the fall of the Northern Song, the remainder of the court fled south and established a new dynasty – the Southern Song (1127-1279).
Soon, the newly founded Southern Song also became a target for the Jin. However, this attempt proved less successful for the Jin due to the resistance led by Yuefei, Han Shizhong and other heroes. The Jin army suffered heavy setbacks and could no longer compete with the Song. Thus, a period of coexistence between the two rival powers came into being.
A peaceful yet uneasy period between the rival Jin and Southern Song dynasties was made possible when the Jin became an ally of the Western Xia. This gave the Jin a dominant position in which it was able to demand tributes from the Song. However, the Jin underestimated the growing threat from its ancient enemies, the Mongolians.
With the growing power of Mongolians, Jin was threatened by Mongols. In 1233, the Mongolian army conquered Bianjing (Jin’s capital). In 1234 the Mongolian army, assisted by the Song army, captured Jin’s emperor and put an end to the Jin Dynasty.
Western Xia Dynasty In 1038 that the Tangut chieftain Li Yuahao, named himself emperor of Da Xia, and demanded of the Northern Song emperor’s recognition as an equal. The Song court accepted the recognition of Li Yuanhao as “governor”, but not “emperor”, a title considered exclusive to the Song emperor. After intense diplomatic contacts, in 1043 the Tangut state accepted the recognition of the Song emperor as emperor in exchange for annual tribute, which implied tacit recognition on the part of the Song of the military power of the Tangut.
After the Jin destroyed the Northern Song Dynasty in 1127, Western Xia took several thousand square miles of land from Northern Song. In 1227 Western Xia was destroyed by Mongol.

The prehistory of China
The Xia Dynastry(21st-17th centuryBC)
The Shang Dynasty(17th-11th century BC)
The Zhou Dynasty(11th century BC-256BC)
The Spring Autumn(770-476BC) and Warring States Period(475- 221BC)
The Qin Dynasty(221-206BC)
The Western Han Dynasty(206BC-25AD)
The Eastern Han Dynasty(25AD-220AD)
The Sui Dynasty(589-618)
The Tang Dynasty(618-907)
The Five Dynasties(907-960)
The Northern Song Dynasty(960-1127)
The Liao Dynasty(907-1125), Western Xai Dynasty(1038-1227) and Jin Dynasty(1115-1234)
The Southern Dynasty(1127-1279)
The Yuan Dynasty(1206-1368)
The Ming Dynasty(1368-1644)
The Qing Dynasty(1616-1911)
Republic of China(1912-1949)
The People's Republic of China(1949-)

 

 

 


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