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The Education in China
It is convenient to divide the education in China into four categories: primary education, secondary education, higher education and adult education.
The Law of Compulsory Education issued in 1986, which stipulated each child must have nine years of formal education. To meet this requirement, a child will attend either 6 years of elementary education, followed by 3 years of junior middle school,
It is recognized that certain realities prevent this nine year standard to be implemented immediately. Therefore, a provision of the Education Law is that China shall be divided into three categories: cities and economically developed areas, towns and villages with medium development, and economically backward areas. In the first two categories, the nine-year standard has, in most cases, become universal. Estimates are that in areas comprising 91% of the population, primary education has become universal. Indeed, by a 1994 estimate, 98.4% of elementary school-aged children entered school, with a dropout rate of less than 2% per year. Of the primary school graduates, over 80% go on to junior middle school, which represents about 75% of the relative age cohort. However, in the economically backward area, which contains about 25% of China's population, a variable timetable for implementing compulsory education has been tied to each such region's local economic development.
In passing, it should be noted that the most important contributing factor the drop-out rates at each level is the increasing cost of education in China. The schools are charged a variety of fees by the local authorities, which are then passed along to the students.
Now in the countryside it is free for the students to enjoy 9 years’ education.
The Educational System
1. Primary Education.
Primary education includes pre-school education and elementary school education. Generally speaking the elementary age is 7. Students will study 6 years before they go to junior middle school. The students will study 5 days a week. They also enjoy public holidays and summer vacation and winter vacation. Each school year consists of 2 semesters.
2. Secondary Education.
Secondary education is divided into regular secondary education and vocational and technical secondary education. Regular secondary education consists of junior middle school and senior middle school. Both junior middle school and senior middle school continue for three years.
Students in the vocational and technical secondary education stream will, upon graduation from junior middle school, enter a vocational or technical school. Vocational schools generally offer programs ranging from two to four years, and train medium-level skilled workers, as well as managerial and technical personnel. Technical schools typically offer four year programs to train intermediate technical personnel. There is a third category, called Schools for Skilled Workers that typically enroll graduates from junior middle schools to train for positions involving production and operation skills. The length of training is typically three years.
3. Higher Education.
Higher education at the undergraduate level includes two or three years’ junior colleges, four-year’s universities. Many colleges and universities also offer graduate programs, leading to the Master's or Ph.D. degrees. Higher education is China is not free but the tuition is not very expensive compared to western countries. Students even can apply for loan from the banks.
4. Adult Education.
This category overlaps all three of the above categories. There is adult primary education, which organizes into Workers' Primary Schools, Peasants' Primary Schools, and Literacy classes. Adult secondary education includes radio/TV specialized secondary schools, specialized secondary schools for cadres, specialized secondary schools for staff and workers, specialized secondary schools for peasants, in-service teacher training schools, and correspondence specialized secondary schools. Adult higher education includes radio/TV universities, cadre institutes, workers' colleges, peasant colleges, correspondence colleges, and educational colleges. Most of the above colleges offer both short-cycles as well as regular undergraduate curricula.
Most schools and universities in China are public but during last few years a lot of private schools and universities appeared. Now there are 12millions teachers in China. There are over 1200 colleges and universities. Qinghua University and Beijing University are two most famous universities in China as well as in the world. There are 820 thousand postgraduates in school. There are 13.33million students in colleges and universities. There 13.67million students in the middle vocational schools. There are 22.22million students in senior middle schools. There 64.75 million students in the junior middle schools. There are 112.46 million students in elementary schools. (According to the statistic figure in 2004)
The payout of education finance in China is still low. It just accounts for 2.79% of its GDP in 2005. So it is very necessary for the government to increase the input for education in the future.

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