China is playing an important role in the foreign
affairs. China maintains very close and important foreign relations
with most countries in the world. China is a big power to safeguard
the piece of the world. All these attribute to China’s right foreign
China's foreign policy is to guarantee independence, freedom and
territorial integrity of the state, support protracted world peace
and friendly cooperation among peoples of all countries in the world,
and oppose imperialist policies of aggression and war. The Constitution
of the People's Republic of China revised during the First Plenary
Session of the Eighth National People's Congress has the explicit
stipulations concerning China's foreign policy: "China adheres
to an independent foreign policy as well as to the five principles
of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual
non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs,
equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence in developing
diplomatic relations and economic and cultural exchanges with other
countries; China consistently opposes imperialism, hegemonism and
colonialism, works to strengthen unity with the people of other
countries, supports the oppressed nations and the developing countries
in their just struggle to win and preserve national independence
and develop their national economies, and strives to safeguard world
peace and promote the cause of human progress."
Following the above policies over the past 50 years, China has actively
engaged in foreign activities, and in handling foreign affairs.
China has made sustained efforts to developing friendly cooperative
relations with all countries and in safeguarding world peace, and
has made its contribution in these fields too.
1. Maintaining Independence and Safeguarding National Sovereignty
China had suffered imperialist aggression and oppression for over
100 years before the founding of the People's Republic in 1949.
Therefore, China regards the hard-earned right of independence as
the basic principle of foreign policy.
China maintains independence, does not allow any country to infringe
upon its national sovereignty and interfere in its internal affairs.
As to international affairs, China decide on our stand and policy
according to whether the matter is right and wrong and in consideration
of the basic interests of the Chinese people and the people of the
world, and shall never yield to pressure and threat from other countries.
China maintains independence, cherishes its own right and also respects
for the right of independence of other countries. China upholds
that any country, big or small, rich or poor, and strong or weak,
should be equal. China maintains independence, will neither enter
into alliance with any big power or group of countries, nor establish
any military bloc, join in the arms race or seek military expansion.
2. Opposing Hegemonism and Safeguarding World Peace
The common aspiration of the Chinese people as well as the people
of the world is to maintain peace and to eliminate wars.
After the World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union desperately
engaged in arm races and regional domination in order to contend
for world hegemonism. As a result, they caused severe threat to
world peace. The Chinese government has constantly opposed arm races
and regional domination, and actively stood for the complete prohibition
and destruction of nuclear weapons and great reduction of conventional
weapons and military troops. China decided in 1985 to reduce one
million troops within two years and signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation
of Nuclear Weapons in 1992. All these received favorable international
3. Upholding the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence
The five principles of peaceful coexistence was put forward in line
with the reality of a multipolar world. Respect to sovereignty is
the most fundamental principle in a new type of international relations.
Mutual non-aggression means to get rid of the threat of using arms
and armed threat in the internal relations among countries. Non-interference
in each other's international affairs is the most important principle
in international relations to guarantee each country's right to
take care of its own internal affairs and prevent any other country
from interfering with any means. Equality and mutual benefit mean
political equality, economic equality, cooperation, mutual benefit
and supplement to each other's needs. Peaceful coexistence calls
on all countries to seek common interests, reserve differences,
respect each other, maintain friendly cooperation and live in harmony
regardless of differences in their social systems and ideologies.
In the 1990s great changes have occurred in the world. Domination
of two superpowers ended and the world is becoming more multipolar.
On the basis of the five principles of peaceful coexistence, China
stands for the establishment of a peaceful, stable, just and rational
international order. China's stand conforms to the purposes and
principles of the UN Charter, and reflects the trend of the times
to seek peace and development.
4. Strengthening Solidarity of the Developing Countries,
and Together Opposing Imperialism and Colonialism
It is a great cause of the people in the developing countries in
Asia, Africa and Latin America that account for three-quarters of
the total population of the world, to take the road of independence
and development. China has constantly held that supporting the just
demands of the developing countries and safeguarding solidarity
and cooperation among the developing countries is its international
duty. Whenever the developing countries suffer external aggression
and interference, China is ready to give its support. Many leaders
of the developing countries regard China as a "tested friend"
and a "reliable friend".
China has become a formal observer of the nonalignment movement,
and its cooperative relations with the Seventy-Seven Group and the
South Pacific Forum has been steadily strengthened.
5. Improving Relations with Developed Countries to Promote
On the basis of the principle of peaceful coexistence, China has
constantly stood for establishing and developing relations with
developed countries, and regarded improving the relations with developed
countries and promoting development with them as an important task
of China's foreign affairs.
The establishment of the diplomatic relations with France in 1964
broke the policy of Western countries to isolate China. In the 1970s
the world situation experienced a great change, the United States
had to readjust its policy on China, and China also readjusted its
policy on the United States. This resulted in a breakthrough of
the long antagonism between China and the United State, and the
normalization of diplomatic relations between the two countries
through common efforts. Meanwhile, China established diplomatic
relations and strengthened friendly cooperative ties with other
Western countries successively. This further brought about a new
situation in China's foreign affairs.
6. Removing External Interference, Promoting China's Reunification
Hong Kong and Macao have been inseparable parts of China since ancient
times. China does not recognize unequal treaties imposed by imperialist
powers. Regarding the issue of Hong Kong and Macao left over by
history, China has constantly held the position of peaceful settlement
through negotiations at a proper opportunity.
In order to accomplish China's reunification, Deng Xiaoping put
forward the concept of "one country, two systems". The
delegations of the Chinese and British governments finally reached
an agreement after 22 rounds of talks, and formally signed the Joint
Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong and three appendixes. Hong
Kong returned to the embrace of the motherland on July 1, 1997.
The Chinese and Portugal governments formally signed the Joint Declaration
on the Question of Macao and two appendixes in 1984 after they reached
an agreement through four-round talks. China will resume its exercise
of sovereignty over Macao on December 20, 1999.
Taiwan is an inalienable part of Chinese territory. People of the
two sides of the Taiwan Straits are looking forward to the realization
of China's reunification. China resolutely opposes the "independence
of Taiwan", the attempt to create "two Chinas" or
"one China, one Taiwan". Chinese leaders call on Taiwan
authorities to enter into political negotiations with the mainland
at an early date. On the premise that there is only one China, the
two sides of the Straits should end the state of hostility, and
improve the relations between the two sides to accomplish the reunification
of the motherland.
The international situation is experiencing a great change, and
peace and development have become the mainstream of the time. China
will continue to adhere to the independent and peaceful foreign
policy and to make greater contribution to the cause of safeguarding
world peace and promoting human progress, and to building socialism
with Chinese characteristics.
Achievements of China’s Foreign Affairs
China established diplomatic relations with 19 countries in the
19 months between October 1949 and May 1951. Between the second
half of the 1950s and the late 1960s, a large number of newly independent
nations established diplomatic relations with China. By the end
of 1969, the countries having diplomatic relations with China had
increased to 50. In the 1970s, the door was opened; allowing normal
relations between China and the United States, and China’s legitimate
seat in the United Nations and the Security Council was restored.
These developments allowed China’s foreign relations to enter a
new stage. Japan, the United States and other Western countries
joined a great number of Third World countries in establishing diplomatic
relations with China, raising the total number of countries having
diplomatic relations with China to 121 by the end of 1979. In the
1980s, even more countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Oceania
established diplomatic relations with China. Since the beginning
of the 1990s, China has established diplomatic relations with still
more countries, such as Israel, the Republic of Korea and South
Africa, as well as with the newly independent republics that emerged
from the former Soviet Union. By the end of 1999, 161 countries
had diplomatic relations with China.