The resources in China are very rich due to its
vast land and complex geology.
In China today, 94.97 million hectares of land are cultivated, 128.63
hectares are forests and approximately 400 million hectares are
covered with natural grass-type vegetation.
With more than 2,700 billion cubic meters of water flow through
the rivers, China has enough water supplies. Despite this, China
is rich in water power resources, leading the world in hydroelectric
power potential with 680 million kilowatts in reserves.
China has abundant mineral resources. A total of 171 kinds of minerals
have so far been discovered, of which 158 have proven reserves.
These include 10 kinds of energy mineral resources such as petroleum,
natural gas, coal and uranium; 54 kinds of metallic mineral resources
such as tungsten, antimony, iron, manganese, copper, aluminum, lead
and zinc; 91 kinds of nonmetallic mineral resources such as graphite,
phosphorus, sulfur and saline; and three kinds of water and gas
mineral resources such as underground water and mineral water. Currently,
the supply of over 92 percent of China's primary energy, 80 percent
of its industrial raw materials and more than 70 percent of its
agricultural means of production comes from mineral resources.
Fauna and flora resources
China is one of the countries in the world having the most species
of wild animals, with the number of terrestrial vertebrates alone
exceeding 2,000, accounting for 9.8 percent of the world total.
Of this, birds make up the largest proportion, followed by beasts.
Bird species so far discovered total 1,189; beasts, 500; amphibians,
210; and reptiles, 320. Many of the terrestrial vertebrate species
in China are peculiar to, or are mainly found in the country. For
instance, there are 19 species of the pheasant family, such as bamboo
partridge, tragopan, blue pheasant and white-crowned king pheasant.
Giant panda, regarded as "living fossil," is endemic to
China. There is also Pere David's deer, which is of special value
to zoological studies and whose wild species has been extinct. Other
rare species include takin, tufted deer and sika deer. China also
has abundant species of resource animals, with more than 70 fur-bearing
species, accounting for 17 percent of total beast species nationwide.
Plant species are abundant. There are more than 30,000 kinds of
woody plants, of which the number of arbor species exceeds 2,800.
China has almost all kinds of vegetation found in the Northern Hemisphere.
Various kinds of forests are distributed in the humid east, while
in the cold north are deciduous coniferous forests, and in the warm
south, broad-leaved deciduous forests. Compared with that elsewhere
around the world, subtropical forests in China cover the largest
area, where grow small tracts of surviving ancient plants, such
as metasequoia, dove tree and ginkgo, which are regarded as "living
fossils" and have disappeared in other parts of the world.
The southernmost part of China has tropical semi-evergreen monsoon
forests, rain forests and mangroves. In addition to its peculiar
species such as metasequoia, dove tree, ginkgo, Chinese cypress,
China fir, golden larch, Taiwania, Fujian cypress .China has introduced
some tropical plants, such as rubber, oil palm and sisal hemp.
China has broad continental shelf where is rich of resources such
as Petroleum and natural gases. Prospecting and exploiting are under
way in several locations such as Bo Hai Gulf; the Yellow Sea; the
East China Sea; Taiwan Strait; and the South China Sea.
China now has more than 50 salt fields along its coast, with a combined
acreage of 337,000 hectares. Sea salt constitutes over 70 percent
of China's total production of crude salt, with its annual output
exceeding 20 million tons, ranking first worldwide.
Mariculture A total of 20,278 species of marine organisms have been
verified living in China's offshore waters. Aquatic farms along
the country's coast now cover 164,000 hectares, mainly breeding
such shellfish as scallop, oyster and clam, and laminaria.
Tidal energy utilization China's tidal energy reserves amount to
110 million kwh, 21 million kwh of it being exploitable, which can
be used to generate 58 billion kwh of power annually. Having larger
tidal ranges, Zhejiang and Fujian provinces account for 80 percent
of the nation's total coastal tidal energy resources. The Qiantangjiang
estuary in Zhejiang has a tidal range of 8.9 meters and is an ideal
place for a tidal power plant.