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Backing on the world largest Eurasian Continent and facing on the world largest Pacific Ocean, China spans many degrees of latitude with very complex landforms. All these result in the diversity of the climate in China.
The continental monsoon climate
Most part of China has a marked continental monsoon climate characterized by high temperature and abundant rainfall in summer while cold weather and dryness in winter. Winds from north (Siberia and the Mongolian Plateau) prevail in winter, while winds from south east (Pacific Ocean) reign in summer. The four seasons are quite distinct. The dry season is from September to April next year and the rainy season is from April to September. The rainy season in southern part of China is longer than the northern part.
Temperature belts in China
China’s complex and varied climates result in a great variety of temperature belts. Influenced by latitude and monsoon activities, in winter, an isotherm of zero degree traverses the Huaihe River-Qinling Mountain and southeast of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Areas north of the isotherm have temperatures below 0℃ and south of it, above 0℃. The temperature of Mohe Town in Heilongjiang Province can drop at an average of 30 degrees centigrade below zero, while temperature in Hainan Province is above 20 degrees centigrade. In summer, most of areas are above 20 centigrade, despite the high Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and other mountains such as Tianshan. Among these hot places, Turpan Basin in Xinjiang is the center for intense heat at 32 centigrade on average. There are also the famous 'Three Ovens' cities along the Yangtze River in summer: Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing.
From north to south, there are five temperature zones and a plateau-climate zone: Cold-temperate zone: north part of Heilongjiang Province and Inner Mongol amid-temperate zone: Jilin, northern Xinjiang, and most of Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Inner Mongolia Warm-temperate zone: area of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Hebei Province. Subtropical zone: South of isotherm of Qinling Mountain-Huaihe River, east of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Tropical zone: Hainan province, southern part of Taiwan, Guangdong, and Yunnan Province Plateau climate zone: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Rainfall in China
Precipitation in China is basically regular each year. The rainfall is decreases from southeast to northwest, because the eastern seashores are influenced more than inland areas by the summer monsoon. In the place with the most rainfall, Huoshaoliao in Taiwan, the average annual precipitation can reach over 6,000 mm! The rainy seasons are mainly from May to September.
Based on precipitation, the area divides into four parts: humid area (32 percent of land area), semi-humid (15 percent) area, semi-arid (22 percent) area and arid area (31 percent). The first two are distributed alongside the Qinling Mountain-Huaihe River division, the 800 mm annual precipitation line (isohyet), and are the dominant farming areas. The 400 mm annual isohyet lies along the Daxing'an Mountains-Great Wall-Gangdisi Mountains, and divides the semi-humid and semi-arid areas. The last two areas have very few inhabitants. Their boundary, the 200 mm annual isohyet, is approximately via middle Inner Mongolia and the Helan and Qilian Mountains to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
The climate of China is beneficial to agricultural production in many ways. However, calamity weather frequently occurs such as drought, flood, cold weave and typhoon. In northern part of China drought often occurs while in the southern part of China flood often takes place. In every spring, sandstorms always happen in northern part of China.
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